A carbon abatement contract (contract) is a contractual arrangement to sell Australian carbon credit units (ACCUs) to the Commonwealth. A contract can be secured by participating in an Emissions Reduction Fund purchasing process such as an
There are 2 types of contracts - Fixed Delivery and Optional Delivery. At Auction 14, only Optional Delivery contracts will be available.
When you enter into a contract, you are entering into a commercial arrangement with the Clean Energy Regulator on behalf of the Commonwealth of Australia, including rights and obligations enforceable through the courts-similar to other contractual arrangements. You are advised to seek your own legal advice about the contract before participating in an Emissions Reduction Fund auction.
For further information please see:
Top of page
Fixed Delivery contract refers to the purchase agreement offered by the Clean Energy Regulator that obligates the Seller to deliver an Agreed Quantity of ACCUs to the Clean Energy Regulator. The Clean Energy Regulator purchases these ACCUs at the contracted price over a set delivery schedule for the duration of the contract. ACCUs delivered under this contract can be sourced from the nominated project, other ERF projects or from the secondary market. Fixed Delivery contracts are better suited to projects where abatement can be projected with more certainty or where the contract holder wants the flexibility to deliver ACCUs from more than one source.
Fixed delivery contracts were offered at ERF Auctions 1-13. Fixed delivery contracts were not offered at ERF Auction 14.
Please note, Fixed Delivery contracts contain make good provisions and you will be expected to deliver your Agreed Quantity of ACCUs irrespective of the performance of the associated project.
The Fixed Delivery contract with the Commonwealth has the following key features:
Optional Delivery contract refers to the purchase agreement offered by the Clean Energy Regulator which offers Sellers the right, but
not the obligation, to sell ACCUs to Commonwealth at an agreed price over a set period. ACCUs sold under an Optional Delivery contract
must be derived from a single identified ERF project.
The Optional Delivery contract with the Commonwealth has the following key features:
The Clean Energy Regulator introduced the Optional Delivery contract as a pilot offering for Auction 10. Following the pilot and consultation with industry it was found that there was significant support for the innovative and flexible contract to assist and underpin investment in emissions reductions projects in Australia, enhance supply of ACCUs, offer certainty and help investors better manage their price risks.
Optional Delivery contracts can assist in negotiations with lenders or other parties to demonstrate what the Commonwealth will pay for ACCUs from a specified project, with no contractual barrier to seeking more lucrative contracts from other buyers. In effect, the Optional Delivery contract provides assurance in the form of a minimum price for carbon abatement from a specified project.
You should seek your own legal advice and read the Code of Common Terms for each contract type before deciding on which is most suitable for your individual circumstances.
No. You can register a project and participate in the Emissions Reduction Fund without bidding into an auction or securing a contract.
You will still be required to provide offset and audit reports for the registered project and will be issued with ACCUs for emissions abatement achieved. However, the Clean Energy Regulator will not purchase ACCUs from projects without a contract. Any ACCUs generated can be sold on the secondary market or directly to other parties.
Please refer to the
Choosing a project type for further information regarding obligations on registering and running a project.
Top of page
The contract is between applicant(s) successful in an auction (as the Seller) and the Clean Energy Regulator on behalf of the Commonwealth of Australia (as the Buyer).
The contract is made up of four separate parts:
Code of Common Terms sets out the standard rights and obligations of the parties under the contract and is non-negotiable.
Commercial Terms of the carbon abatement contract as proposed in the
auction qualification application, set out the Seller’s details, and in existing Fixed Delivery contracts, any agreed conditions precedent that one or more parties to the contract will need to fulfil or waive before the obligations to deliver and purchase ACCUs come into effect.
The Commercial Terms include the following details:
Conditions precedent are
not available for Optional Delivery contracts.
Delivery Terms of the carbon abatement contract as proposed in the
auction registration, set out the quantity of ACCUs that the scheme participant agrees to deliver under the contract, and the dates on which the deliveries will be made.
The Delivery Terms include the following:
Financial Terms of the carbon abatement contract as proposed by the auction bid, primarily set out the unit price that the Clean Energy Regulator will be obligated to pay for ACCUs delivered under the contract.
The Financial Terms include the following:
No, you can only be pre-qualified for the contract type of the original qualification.
No. You must be the project participant for the registered ERF project in order to become the Seller under the Optional Delivery carbon abatement contract.
All ACCUs delivered under the Optional Delivery contract must be sourced from the single identified ERF project.
Please see the
Auction Guidelines which cover eligibility in further detail.
Conditions precedent are only featured in existing Fixed Delivery contracts. They are not available for Optional Delivery contracts.
Conditions precedent (CP) are conditions that must be fulfilled or waived before the obligation to deliver and purchase ACCUs under the Fixed Delivery contract comes into effect. For example, the contract will not commence until certain conditions such as financing or regulatory approvals for the project have been met. Conditions precedents may be specified in the Commercial Terms by the Seller or the Buyer or mutually.
All reasonable endeavours must be used to fulfil conditions precedents as soon as possible. Both parties must notify each other as soon as they become aware of a fulfilment or waiver of conditions precedent.
If a conditions precedent is not met by the conditions precedent expiry date the contract may terminate.
conditions precedent for further information.
The conditions precedent expiry date is the date by which a conditions precedent must be fulfilled, waived or re-negotiated, if not the contract may terminate. If you hold a contract subject to conditions precedent and are concerned about fulfilling the conditions precedent before the expiry date please contact the Clean Energy Regulator to discuss the matter.
The conditions precedent expiry date is specified in the Commercial Terms of the contract and is assessed as part of the
auction qualification stage.
Conditions precedent are not available for Optional Delivery contracts.
Conditions precedent are not available for Optional Delivery contracts as there is no obligation to deliver ACCUs.
You should consider the length of the contract you may need and the timing of your scheduled deliveries to align with your expected abatement.
If you make a mistake, and you wish to participate in the current auction, it may be possible to withdraw your current application and resubmit a fresh application. We encourage you to contact the Clean Energy Regulator as soon as possible on
firstname.lastname@example.org or by calling
1300 553 542 to discuss.
No. An Optional Delivery contract can be secured for a
new or existing ERF project, providing that the project has not previously been contracted and is not connected to or identified as part of a portfolio of projects used to meet current contract obligations already committed to by the Applicant.
Only one bid may be submitted for a contract during the auction window. Any subsequent bids will be disregarded.
Amendments to the bid are not possible. You can withdraw the bid before the auction closes (using the bid withdrawal form available in
AusTender within the auction window). However, following submission of the bid withdrawal form, all bids made against the contract application will become ineligible.
Yes. The sale and purchase obligations under the contract start when the contract comes into effect.
No, you can start your project as soon as it is registered by the Clean Energy Regulator.
If you wish to secure a contract for that project, you can apply to qualify for an auction at a later date provided you satisfy the eligibility criteria described in the auction guidelines.
Yes, there are three contract durations:
Refers to contracts where multiple deliveries of ACCUs are scheduled over a period of 7 years. Ten-year contracts are available for projects for with a crediting period of ten years or more.
Refers to where multiple deliveries of ACCUs are scheduled over a period of less than 7 years, and
Where a single delivery of ACCUs are scheduled to be delivered within 30 calendar days of the auction. The minimum volume for immediate delivery contracts is 2,000 ACCUs.
Please see the following resources for further information:
Unless otherwise specified, all reasonable endeavours must be taken to fulfil contractual obligations as soon as practicable and within the specified period in the contract, by the party responsible. Please see
obligations of both parties for more information.
Please refer to
understanding carbon abatement contracts for resources that may assist you in understanding your obligations and powers under the contract. You may also refer any questions to
You must notify the Clean Energy Regulator as soon as you become aware that you are unable to fulfil any of your obligations under the contract. Failure to fulfil contractual obligations may have serious implications.
The Clean Energy Regulator holds the right to disqualify Sellers from future carbon abatement purchasing processes.
All notices to the Clean Energy Regulator relating to carbon abatement contracts, must be from the Seller or authorised representatives on behalf of the Seller, and in writing addressed to:
Emissions Reduction Fund ContractsClean Energy RegulatorGPO Box 621CanberraACT, 2601Australia
Or by email to:
A notice must be signed by the person giving the notice and:
A notice is effective if:
The secondary market refers to transactions of ACCUs outside of schemes administered by the Clean Energy Regulator. Anyone can trade and sell ACCUs on the secondary market.
Please note that the Clean Energy Regulator’s expectation is that Sellers will prioritise Fixed Delivery contract obligations. If ACCUs destined to meet obligations under a carbon abatement contract are sold elsewhere and the Seller is no longer able to meet these obligations, the Seller risks being liable for Buyers Market Damages.
All deliveries are conducted in the Australian National Register of Emissions Units (ANREU), with the transaction being performed directly from the Seller’s ANREU account to the Clean Energy Regulator’s ANREU account.
Delivery is deemed to have occurred when the ACCUs are received in the Clean Energy Regulator’s ANREU account.
For an Optional Delivery contract, the Seller can deliver up to the volume of ACCUs specified on the due date of a delivery schedule. All ACCUs delivered under the Optional Delivery contract must be sourced from the single ERF project that is identified in the Commercial Terms of the contract.
Deliveries of ACCUs for Fixed Delivery contracts can be sourced from alternative projects or the secondary market.
After every delivery, the Seller must send the Clean Energy Regulator an invoice detailing the:
Please note that the Clean Energy Regulator expects Sellers to provide an invoice within
90 days of a delivery being made. Failure to do so may result in delays in payment.
Guidance on how to use the ANREU is available here.
For further information please see
Delivering units and receiving payment.
Yes. For early deliveries where the scheduled delivery date falls within the
same financial year as the transaction, you do not need to seek prior approval and you will be paid in accordance with the Code of Common Terms.
Only early deliveries
across future financial years require prior approval. To request an early delivery across financial years, the Seller must submit a notice to the Clean Energy Regulator, detailing:
The Clean Energy Regulator will notify the Seller of the acceptance, or rejection, of the request for an early delivery across financial years and may seek additional information.
If delivery is made without prior approval it will not be accepted and ACCUs may be transferred back to the Seller’s ANREU account.
Sellers are required to deliver the quantity of ACCUs on the due delivery dates according to the delivery schedule.
If the Seller is not able to deliver ACCUs generated by their own project they are able to either:
If a scheduled delivery is not made in full it is considered a delivery failure.
If the Seller is aware that they may not meet their scheduled delivery quantity by the due date they must contact the Clean Energy Regulator to give notice as soon as possible. The Seller can do this via the
Client Portal (preferred option), or alternatively provided by email to
This notice must set out in reasonable detail:
Following notice of a delivery failure both parties must make reasonable endeavours to agree on a revised delivery schedule. The total amount of ACCUs to be delivered under the contract will not be revised.
At Auction 14, only Optional Delivery contracts will be available.
If ACCUs are not delivered in accordance with the delivery schedule of an Optional Delivery contract, the right to deliver the outstanding volume of ACCUs from a due delivery date will lapse. You must advise the Clean Energy Regulator as soon as you are aware that you will not be able to deliver against a specified due date (milestone).
In very limited circumstances, e.g. a delay in ACCU issuance, a milestone may be extended by mutual agreement.
All ACCUs delivered under the Optional Delivery contract
must be sourced from the single ERF project that is identified in the Commercial Terms of the contract. ACCUs from other sources will not be accepted, and if delivered will be returned to the Seller’s ANREU account.
The delivery will not be accepted against the Optional Delivery contract delivery milestone, and no payment will be made. Seller’s Market Damages will not be applicable.
Under the Optional Delivery contract, it is the responsibility of the Seller to ensure that only eligible ACCUs are transferred to the Commonwealth.
Following the successful delivery of ACCUs from the Seller’s ANREU account to the Clean Energy Regulator’s ANREU account, the Clean Energy Regulator will make payment by electronic transfer to the Seller’s nominated bank account within twenty (20) business days of receipt of the correctly rendered invoice.
It is important that you notify the Clean Energy Regulator of any changes to your bank account details.
A carbon abatement contract ends when it has been completed or terminated.
The contract will be completed at the end of, or prior to, the delivery period when all scheduled ACCUs have been delivered and all payments made.
Contracts can be terminated for several reasons including non-payment, misleading representation or warranty, extended force majeure, insolvency or by mutual agreement. Full details can also be found in the Code of Common Terms for the relevant type of contract.
Contracts are managed in accordance with the Clean Energy Regulator’s
Contract Management Plan. This document guides contract officers in their administration of the contracts underpinned by the Clean Energy Regulator’s Contract Management Principles and will also be considered whenever a Clean Energy Regulator delegate is required to make a discretionary decision or exercise a power in relation to a contract.
A dispute is any action, controversy, proceedings or claim arising from the contract between the parties. A disagreement becomes a dispute when it is not possible for the parties to resolve an issue without resorting to a formal resolution mechanism. Please refer to the relevant Code of Common Terms for further detail on dispute resolution.
Buyer’s Market Damages may only be sought to cover losses suffered by a party to a Fixed Delivery contract. Market damages are not a penalty, but a genuine pre-estimate of damage. The formulae for working out market damages in the different circumstances listed above, are specified in the Code of Common Terms.
Buyer’s Market Damages are not applicable under an Optional Delivery contract as there is no obligation to deliver the ACCUs.
You can read more about the
Emissions Reduction Fund, or for information on how an auction will be run please see
Participating in an auction and read the latest auction guidelines available on the page.
For enquiries phone
1300 553 542 or email
Opening hours are from 9:00am to 5:00pm Monday to Friday (Canberra time).
About The Clean Energy Regulator
Carbon Farming Initiative
Carbon Pricing Mechanism
National Greenhouse And Energy Reporting
Renewable Energy Target
Emissions Reduction Fund
Our Systems And Their Resources
Clean Energy Markets
Data and information
Emissions Reduction Assurance Committee
Subscribe to email updates
Information Publication Scheme
Freedom of Information
The Clean Energy Regulator is a Government body responsible for accelerating carbon abatement for Australia.