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National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme

​​​​A national record of emissions and energy data

The National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme is a national framework for reporting and sharing information about greenhouse gas emissions, and energy production and consumption.

Corporations that meet legislated thresholds must register and report annually.

Reported data informs government policy, programs and activities, avoids duplication of similar reporting requirements in the states and territories, and helps meet Australia’s international reporting obligations.

Data from the scheme is also used to determine baselines for the safeguard mechanism and measure emissions against those baselines (see Emissions Reduction Fund).

As well as the emissions and energy data we are required to publish, we are progressively releasing additional related data as part of our continued effort to improve the availability and accessibility of national greenhouse and energy reporting information.

National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme data is a national asset providing comprehensive coverage of Australia’s energy production, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

Emissions and energy data largely consistent with the past year

Corporations report on their previous 12 months’ data, which means the reports we received by 31 October 2017 provided emissions and energy details for 2016–17. During that year, there were 788 organisations listed on the National Greenhouse and Energy Register. Of those, 406 corporations met the threshold for publishing their emissions and energy data for 2016–17, compared with 394 the previous year.8

Highlights in 2017–18

336
million tonnes of scope 1 greenhouse gas emissions reported
3887
petajoules of net energy consumption reported
98.1%
of reports submitted on time
100%
of required data published on time

Key findings

  • National reported emissions consistent with previous year—A total of 336 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions (scope 1) was reported for 2016–17, close to the 334 million tonnes reported for 2015–16. A total of 86 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions (scope 2) was reported for 2016–17, close to the 90 million tonnes reported for 2015–16.9
  • Electricity supply remains the main source of emissions overall—Also consistent with the previous year, electricity supply accounted for 52.4 per cent of reported scope 1 emissions, followed by mining (includes oil and gas extraction) at 23.4 per cent, manufacturing at 15.8 per cent and transport at 4.9 per cent (see Figure 6).
  • Queensland and New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory again record the highest percentage of emissions—As with the previous year, Queensland and New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory accounted for the largest percentage of emissions, at 27.4 per cent and 26.3 per cent respectively, followed by Victoria at 20.4 per cent and Western Australia at 19.6 per cent. In comparison, South Australia accounted for 3.8 per cent, the Northern Territory for 1.6 per cent and Tasmania for 0.9 per cent.
  • Highest emitting industries by state/territory are consistent with the previous year, except for oil and gas extraction overtaking electricity supply in two states—Electricity supply remained the highest emitting industry in Queensland, Victoria and New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory, and manufacturing remained the highest emitting industry in the Northern Territory and Tasmania. However, in South Australia and Western Australia, the highest emitting industry shifted from electricity to oil and gas extraction in 2016–17. In Western Australia this was largely due to new and increased production of liquefied natural gas, while in South Australia emissions from electricity declined mainly due to the closure of the Augusta Power Stations.
  • Coal produced the most energy—Coal accounted for 48.1 per cent of energy production, followed by gaseous fossil fuels at 34.3 per cent, uranium at 6.9 per cent, petroleum-based products at 6.8 per cent and electricity at 3.4 per cent.
  • Electricity supply industry again consumed the most energy—In terms of net energy consumption, the electricity supply industry consumed the most energy at 38.6 per cent. Other high net energy consuming industries were once again manufacturing at 27.7 per cent, mining at 23.3 per cent, and transport at 6.9 per cent. Other industries collectively represent less than four per cent of net energy consumption.

Highlights and data sets for 2016–17 are available on our website.

Figure 6: Sources of reported 2016–17 scope 1 emissions by industry
Figure: Chart showing sources of reported 2016–17 scope 1 emissions by industry.
IndustryPercent of scope 1 emissions
Other3.4%
Transport4.9%
Manufacturing15.8%
Mining23.4%
Electricity supply52.4%
Figure 7: Highest sources of reported 2016–17 scope 1 emissions by state and territory
Figure: Diagram showing highest sources of reported 2016–17 scope 1 emissions by state and territory.

Use of National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme data

Scheme data helps meet Australia’s international reporting obligations, informs and assists with Commonwealth, state and territory policy and program development, and reduces duplication in reporting.

In particular, the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme data provides a foundation for international reporting work by the Department of the Environment and Energy. For example, scheme data contributes approximately 60 per cent of the emissions data for the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report, which is part of the National Greenhouse Accounts produced by the Department of the Environment and Energy. These accounts are required to meet Australia’s reporting commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme data also contributes around 80 per cent of the energy data for the Australian Energy Statistics. The Australian Energy Statistics is the authoritative and official source of energy data for Australia, and forms the basis of Australia’s reporting obligations to the International Energy Agency.

Figure 8: Key uses of National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme data
Meet Australia’s international reporting obligations
  • Australian National Greenhouse Accounts
    (national greenhouse gas inventory).
  • Australian Energy Statistics
    (authoritative handbook on energy resources).
Inform Commonwealth policy, programs and activitiesInform the Australian public
  • National Emissions Projections.
  • Safeguard mechanism.
  • Greenhouse and energy data required reporting.
  • National Energy Productivity Plan.
  • Energy, Water and Environmental Survey.
  • Energy Account Australia.
  • Australian Energy Statistics.
  • Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Intensity Index
    (Australian Energy Market Operator).
  • Policy and program formulation and analysis by Commonwealth agencies.
Inform state and territory policy, programs and activities
  • Policy and program formulation and analysis by state and territory agencies.
  • Avoid duplications of state and territory reporting requirements.

Looking forward

Moving to tailored, as-needed information sharing

We provide the secretariat for the Commonwealth Information Sharing Network and the State and Territory Information Sharing Network, which are forums to discuss National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme data. These networks and our ongoing interactions with Commonwealth and state/territory government agencies, via the training and support services we provide, will continue to assist in identifying opportunities for further use of National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme data.

We are moving towards a one-on-one type information sharing model for states and territories, increasing face-to-face interactions to meet training requirements and assist with addressing specific business needs. This model will complement the existing Information Sharing Network forum and will:

  • improve two-way information exchange between our agency and states and territories
  • assist with better understanding the program and policy developments in each jurisdiction, and
  • enhance visibility on how states and territories use or intend to use National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme data.

Making aggregated National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme data more widely available

Publishing aggregated scheme data enables us to provide valuable emissions and energy information to the public and other data users while retaining confidentiality of individual reporter-level data. For example, our website includes ‘A closer look at energy and emissions data’, we provide aggregated scheme data through CSIRO’s proposed energy use data model (EUDM), and we publish scheme and other data we collect through the Australian Renewable Energy Mapping Infrastructure Project’s National Map.

Continuing support for the safeguard mechanism

The National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme will continue to support the safeguard mechanism by providing the data to help determine baseline emissions and check compliance with baselines (see Emissions Reduction Fund for more details about the safeguard mechanism and baselines).

Photo: Gowrie Park region, Tasmania

FEATURE

Using data analytics to validate and make best use of reported data

For almost a decade the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme has been collecting information about Australia’s energy production and consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions.

This data is sourced from energy and emissions reports received from hundreds of corporations that have met reporting thresholds.

This information is available to inform important decisions, including national, state and territory policies, programs and activities with environmental and economic impacts. As a result, the integrity of the data is paramount.

To ensure the information we share and publish is accurate, we continually evaluate and evolve the way we administer the scheme. This has resulted in more evidence-based compliance monitoring and use of data analytics tools to manage existing compliance priorities and help identify emerging risks.

We are integrating more algorithms and developing new tools to improve data analytics applied across a broad range of the data. This increases visibility of significant differences from one year to the next that we need to validate. For example, a corporation may report an amount of energy or emissions where the unit of measurement applied is incorrect. This is routinely detected through the use of analytics tools.

Analysis of location data can also highlight anomalies to be examined further. For instance, if a corporation provides its head office location in Sydney, rather than the Queensland location of the facility reporting emissions, this could skew data about state emissions levels used to inform state government decisions such as emissions controls or energy efficiency policy.

Some of our clients operate across a number of the schemes we administer and, where appropriate, we use a range of data sourced from the schemes and other agencies for validation purposes. Such information sharing and the use of data analytics allows us see if a risk profile is changing, so we can identify ways to mitigate that risk.

Streamlining our data validation activities has allowed us to focus on improving the effectiveness of other compliance activities aimed at increasing the accuracy of reported data.

We will continue to evolve the way we administer the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting scheme, to increase the quality of data and facilitate the most effective use of information we collect, both now and into the future.

Footnotes

8. The publication threshold is 50,000 tonnes or more of greenhouse gases (CO2-e).

9. Scope 1 greenhouse gas emissions are the emissions released to the atmosphere as a direct result of an activity, or series of activities at a facility level. Scope 1 emissions are sometimes referred to as direct emissions.

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